GENERAL   INFORMATION   ON

INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE  :   HISTORY

The cosmic ray community has a proud history of conducting the biennial conference almost un-interrupted since the 1st conference held in Cracow (Poland) in 1947. (www.iupap.org/commissions/c4/)

Since then the conference has moved over the different continents in a well-organized manner  giving proper representation to the cosmic ray communities working in various countries:

 1st - Cracow (Poland, 1947)
 2nd - Como (Italy, 1949)
 3rd - Bagneres-de-Bigorre (France, 1953)
 4th - Guanjuato (Mexico, 1955)
 5th - Varenna (Italy, 1957)
 6th - Moscow (USSR,1959)
 7th - Kyoto (Japan, 1961)
 8th - Jaipur (India, 1963)
 9th - London (UK, 1965)
10th - Calgary (Canada, 1967)
11th - Budapest (Hungary, 1969)
12th - Hobart (Australia, 1971)
13th - Denver (USA, 1973)
14th - Muenchen (Germany, 1975)
15th - Plovdiv (Bulgaria, 1977)
16th - Kyoto (Japan, 1979)
17th - Paris (France, 1981)
18th - Bangalore (India, 1983)
19th - La Jolla (USA, 1985)
20th - Moscow (USSR, 1987)
21st - Adelaide (Australia, 1990)
22nd - Dublin (Ireland, 1991)
23rd - Calgary (Canada, 1993)
24th - Rome (Italy, 1995)
25th - Durban (South Africa, 1997)
26th - Salt Lake City (USA, 1999)
27th - Hamburg (Germany, 2001)
28th - Tsukuba (Japan, 2003)

The 29th ICRC returns to India in 2005, 22 years after the 18th ICRC was held in Bangalore in August 1983 and 42 years after the 8th ICRC was held in Jaipur in December 1963. The cosmic ray community thanks the IUPAP Commission on Cosmic Rays (C4) for accepting its invitation to hold the 29th ICRC in India and extends to all the participants and accompanying persons a very warm welcome and assures them of a lively and very enjoyable time at Pune, the cultural capital of the western Indian state of Maharashtra with its distinct contribution to the Indian cultural mosaic.

SPONSORING  ORGANIZATIONS

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) , Mumbai  was established in June 1945 at the initiative of  Dr. Homi Jehangir Bhabha, an eminent mathematical physicist who had made notable contributions to the field of particles and their interactions in 1930's including the famous Bhabha-Heitler cascade  theory for the development of cosmic ray showers in the atmosphere. The Institute and its various  Centres and Field Stations have a total strength of about 400 scientists working in various disciplines grouped into three major Schools: School of Mathematics, the School of Natural Sciences and the School of Technology and Computer Science. The School of Mathematics has a Centre in Bangalore dedicated to the study of Applied Mathematics. The Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education at Mumbai, the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics at Pune and the National Centre for Biological Sciences at Bangalore are a part of the School of Natural Sciences. The School of Technology and Computer Science is operating a Centre for Computational Mathematics at Pune. In addition, the Institute has several field stations for observational programs in specific fields, the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at Khodad, 80 km north of Pune, the equatorially-mounted cylindrical  Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT)  and the  Cosmic Ray Laboratory (CRL) at Ooty, 250 km south of Bangalore, the High Energy Gamma Ray Observatory (HEGRO) at Pachmarhi, 200 km south of Bhopal, and the Gravitation Laboratory at Gauribidanur, 80 km north of Bangalore. Research in theoretical and experimental physics is a major component of the academic activity at the main campus of the Institute at Mumbai with large groups working in  theoretical physics, astronomy & astrophysics, cosmic ray astrophysics, high energy physics, condensed matter physics & material science and atomic & nuclear physics. The scientists in the Departments of chemical physics and biological sciences use a state of the art FTNMR facility for studies focused on the structure of complex molecules and proteins.

The vision for the development of TIFR was contained in the letter written in 1943 by Homi Bhabha to the eminent industrialist and philanthropist J.R.D. Tata. In this historic letter, Bhabha sought JRD's support "to build in the course of time a School of Physics comparable to the best anywhere". The TIFR started functioning on June 1, 1945 at the Cosmic Ray Research unit set up by Homi Bhabha on the campus of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore at the invitation of the then I.I.Sc. Director, Nobel Laureate C.V. Raman. Within 6 months, the TIFR shifted to Kenilworth, a bungalow on Pedder Road in Central Bombay and then to the Old Yacht Club, near the Gateway of India, in 1949. The new 15-acre campus in Navy Nagar in Colaba in southern Bombay overlooking the Arabian sea, specially designed to provide excellent ambience and facilities for mathematicians and physicists, both theoretical and experimental, was formally inaugurate by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on January 15, 1962.(www.tifr.res.in)

National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA), Pune, is one of the Centres of the School of Natural Sciences of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. Started in 1963, the Radio Astronomy group at TIFR built the 550 m long, 50 m wide cylindrical radio telescope  (ORT) at Ooty in late 1960's. The ORT exploited the low latitude (11.4 N) and the mountain topography in the Nilgiri mountains to save on constructions costs. Using the technique of lunar occultation, a unique database of radio sizes for 700 sources with few arc second resolution at meter wavelengths was obtained with the ORT. Several studies using the techniques of interplanetary and interstellar scintillation, observations of pulsars and radio recombination lines and searches for lines of deuterium and highly red-shifted hydrogen were conducted with the ORT over nearly two decades. Recently, the Radio Astronomy group, now located at the NCRA, Pune, on the campus of the University of Pune, has constructed the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at Khodad, 80 km north of Pune, which became operational in 1998. The GMRT is the world's largest synthesis telescope at wavelengths longer than 21 cm. On-going studies at the GMRT include observations on highly red-shifted 21cm hydrogen absorption lines, diffuse radio emission from clusters of galaxies, discovery of new galactic supernova remnants and multi-frequency pulsar observations. It is proposed to organize an excursion to GMRT and nearby interesting places on  Sunday, Aug 7, 2005.(www.ncra.tifr.res.in)

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, is a premier  multi-disciplinary Nuclear Research Centre of India having excellent infrastructure for advanced Research and Development with expertise covering the entire spectrum of Nuclear Science and Engineering and related areas. (www.barc.ernet.in

Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, grew out of the Palit Research Laboratory in Physics of the University of Calcutta in 1949 from the initiative taken by Professor M N Saha who succeeded Prof D M Bose in the Palit Chair of Physics in 1938. The Institute of Nuclear Physics was formally founded in 1949 with its new building inaugurated by Madame Irene Joliot-Curie on Jan 11, 1950. Soon after the passing away of Prof. Saha on Feb 16, 1956, the Institute was renamed as the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics. Basic research is carried out at the Institute in the frontline areas of Physical, Electronic and Biophysical sciences.Initially  a part of the University of Calcutta, the SINP is now an autonomous institution under the administrative control of the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India. (www.saha.ernet.in)

Department of Atomic Energy, Governement of India, Mumbai was set up in 1954 by the Government of India for research, including fundamental research, in matters connected with atomic energy and the development of its uses in agriculture, biology, industry and medicine. The Department is responsible for (a) the development of atomic energy and generation of electricity including design, construction and operation of research and power reactors, (b) survey of related minerals, prospecting, drilling, development and mining and (c) acquisition and control of radioactive substances and regulation of their possession, use, disposal and transport. One of its principal mandate is the development of scientific manpower for furtherance of studies in nuclear and related sciences for which it provides assistance to institutions like TIFR and SINP and to Universities for advanced study and research in nuclear sciences. The Department is also assisting hospitals and research centres for furtherance of nuclear medicine and research in radiation oncology.
(www.dae.gov.in)

Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, is a premier national centre devoted to research in astronomy, astrophysics and related physics. It traces its origin back to an observatory set up in 1786 at Madras which from the year 1792 began to formally function at its Nungambakkam premises as the Madras Observatory. With headquarters at Bangalore, the Institute's laboratories are currently active at Kodaikanal, Kavalur, Gauribidanur, Hanle and Hosakote. (www.iiap.res.in

Raman Research Institute, Bangalore was founded by Nobel laureate Sir C.V.Raman in 1948 with funds from private sources. The main activity of the institute was basic research in selected areas of physics which were of particular interest to Prof. Raman. The institute owes its origin to action of government of Mysore in gifting to the Indian Academy of Sciences a plot of land in Bangalore in December 1934. In the year 1956, Prof. Raman made an irrevocable gift to the Indian Academy of Sciences, of various movable and immovable properties for the use and the benefit of the Raman Research Institute.  After Prof. Raman's death in November, 1970, The Indian Academy of Sciences created in July 1971 a public charitable educational trust by the name Raman Research Institute Trust (RRI Trust). One of the main objectives of the RRI Trust is principally to maintain, conduct and sustain the Raman Research Institute. The institute was reorganized in 1972 and is funded now by the Department of Science and Technology of the Government of India. (www.rri.res.in)

Department of Science & Technology, New Delhi was established in May 1971 with the objective of promoting new areas of Science & Technology and to play the role of a nodal department for organizing, coordinating and promoting S&T activities in the country. The DST has major responsibilities for specific projects and programs. (www.dst.gov.in)

Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad was founded by Dr. Vikram Sarabhai in 1947 following an agreement between the Ahmedabad Education Society and Karmakshetra Educational Foundation. The Laboratory had its humble beginnings in the M.G. Science Institute and its research activities were focused primarily on studies of cosmic rays and the upper atmospheric. Within a few years of the establishment of PRL, the first Council for its Management was formed which included eminent scientists, Dr. K.S. Krishnan and Dr. S.S. Bhatnagar. The activities of the Laboratory expanded considerably through participation in the programs of the International Geophysical Year (1957-58). During the 1960's , the PRL witnessed a surge of activities related to understanding the Earth and its atmosphere through observations from space. In the early 70's the Laboratory has come under the umbrella of the Department of Space. The research activities at PRL now cover Laboratory Astrophysics, Infra-red Astronomy, Radio Astronomy, Geocosmophysics, Particle Physics, Non-linear Dynamics and Laser & Quantum Optics. (www.prl.res.in

Indian Space Research Organization, Bangalore, was established in 1969 with the prime objective to develop space technology and its application to various national tasks. ISRO has established space systems like the INSAT for telecommunication, television broadcasting and meteorological services, and the Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS) for resources monitoring and management. ISRO has also developed the satellite launch vehicles PSLV and GSLV to place these satellites in the required orbits.  Set up in 1972 the Space Commission is responsible for the formulation of the policy of the Department of Space and the Department provides, through ISRO, overall direction to the technical and administrative functions of the four ISRO Centres, namely, the Space Applications Centre at Ahmedabad, the ISRO Satellite Centre at Bangalore, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre at Thiruvanathapuram and the SHAR Centre at Sriharikota. (www.isro.org)

Inter-University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCAA), Pune, located at the campus of the University of Pune, just across the road from NCRA, is an autonomous institution set up by the University Grants Commission of India to promote nucleation and growth of active groups in Astronomy and Astrophysics in Indian universities. IUCAA aims at being a centre for excellence within the university sector for teaching, research and development in Astronomy and Astrophysics. IUCAA conducts Schools and Workshops on the frontier and challenging areas in astronomy and astrophysics at its Pune campus and at various universities to motivate active researchers and young students. At the same time, the Centre also conducts introductory schools on astronomy and astrophysics at colleges and universities to spread knowledge about the new and exciting developments in the field and generate interest in the student community at the undergraduate as well as postgraduate level. Its distinguished faculty and beautiful campus with all necessary facilities provide an ideal atmosphere for the pursuit of academic excellence. (www.iucaa.ernet.in)

University of Pune  was established in 1948 and is one of the leading centres for research and teaching in India. The 400 acre campus is located in the north-western part of Pune. The placid environs and state of the art facilities provide the students and researchers with an ideal atmosphere to pursue studies and research in various areas of Science, Arts, Commerce and Languages. The University houses 40 departments which provide a wide array of academic programs and continues to strive for excellence. University of Pune has earned national recognition for several programs, for example, the Centre for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Solid State Physics, the Department for Atmospheric and Space Sciences, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics in Sciences and its Centres for Advanced Study in Sanskrit, European Studies and Performing Arts in Humanities. (www.unipune.ernet.in)

University Grants Commission, New Delhi : The Government of India decided in 1952 that all cases pertaining to the allocation of grants-in-aid from public funds to the Central Universities and other Universities and Institutions of higher learning might be referred to the University Grants Commission. Consequently, the University Grants Commission (UGC) was formally constituted in December 1953.  The UGC, however, was formally established only in November 1956 as a statutory body of the Government of India through an Act of Parliament for the coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of university education in India. In order to ensure effective region-wise coverage throughout the country, the UGC has de-centralized its operations by setting up six regional centres at Pune, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Bhopal, Guwahati and Bangalore. The head office of the UGC is located at Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg in New Delhi, with two additional bureaus operating from 35, Feroze Shah Road and the South Campus of University of Delhi as well. (www.ugc.ac.in)

Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi was inaugurated on 7 January  1935 at Calcutta and functioned with its HQ at Asiatic Society of Bengal till 1951 and thereafter shifted to Delhi. Indian National Science Academy, plays a crucial role in promoting, recognizing and rewarding excellence. Another important task is to publish journals, organize scientific discussions and bring out proceedings and monographs. The Academy promotes public awareness and understanding of science. Acting as links between the scientific community and the planners, they advise the governments on critical issues. Importantly they serve as forums for interaction among scientists within and outside the country. (www.insaindia.org)